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Black Minds Matter

The Association of California School Administrators is the largest umbrella organization for school leaders in the United States, serving more than 17,000 California educators.

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THE EDUCATION TRUST–WEST | BLACK MINDS MATTER | OCTOBER 2015 3 1 1 See, for example, Dolores Acevedo-Garcia et al., "Future Directions in Research on Institutional and Interpersonal Discrimination and Children's Health," American Journal of Public Health 103, vol. 10 (Oct. 2013): 1754-1763; Dolores Acevedo-Garcia et al., "The Child Opportunity Index: Improving Collaboration Between Community Development and Public Health," Health Affairs 33, no. 11 (Oct. 2015), 1948-1957. 2 National Center for Children in Poverty, 2011-2013, "California: Demographics of Low-Income Children," available at: 3 KIDS COUNT Data Center, Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2014, "Children in Poverty by Race and Ethnicity," available at ethnicity?loc=6&loct=2#detailed/2/6/false/869,36,868,867,133/10,11,9,12,1,185,13/324,323. Original data source: Population Reference Bureau, analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, 2001 Supplementary Survey, 2002 through 2013 American Community Survey. 4 California Child Welfare Indicators Project, 2015, "Point-In-Time/Children in Foster Care," available at: Population includes children ages 0-20 for the July 1, 2015 time period. 5 Early Edge California, "Research Shows: The Benefits of High-Quality Early Learning" (Oakland, Calif.: Early Edge California). 6 Betty Hart and Todd Risley, "The Early Catastrophe: The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3," American Educator (Spring 2003): 4-9. 7 Steven Barnett, Megan Carolan, James Squires, Kirsty Clarke Brown, and Michelle Horowitz, "The State of Preschool 2014: State Preschool Yearbook" (New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research, 2015). 8 Lawrence Schweinhart et al., "The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40," based on excerpts from "Lifetime Effects: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40," (Ypsilanti, Mich.: High/Scope Press, 2005); Jill Cannon and Lynn Karoly, "The Promise of Preschool for Narrowing Readiness and Achievement Gaps Among California Children" (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2007). 9 Based on data provided by Preschool for All, which compares 2014-15 First 5 San Francisco administrative data to 2010 U.S. Census figures. 10 Based on Education Trust–West analysis of California's Academic Performance Index data from 2013. That year, 16 percent of the state's African American students were in API 1 schools, the lowest performing decile. Conversely, 2 percent of White students were in API 1 schools. 11 Gary Orfield and Jongyeon Ee, "Segregating California's Future: Inequality and its Alternative" (Los Angeles: The Civil Rights Project, May 2014). 12 Office of the Attorney General, "In School + On Track: Attorney General's 2015 Report on California's Elementary School Truancy & Absenteeism Crisis" (Sacramento, Calif.: Office of the Attorney General, 2015). These data represent a sample of over 90 districts (representing 350,000 California students) that provided data on chronic absenteeism rates at the elementary level. 13 Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, "Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced And Underprotected" (New York: African American Policy Forum and Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies, 2015). 14 Jason A. Okonofua and Jennifer L. Eberhardt, "Two Strikes: Race and the Disciplining of Young Students," Psychological Science 26, no. 5 (May 2015). 15 Catherine P. Bradshaw et al., "Multilevel Exploration of Factors Contributing to the Overrepresentation of Black Students in Office Disciplinary Referrals," Journal of Educational Psychology 102 vol. 2 (May 2010): 508-520. 16 See, for example, S. Paul Wright, Sandra P. Horn and William L. Sanders, "Teacher and Classroom Context Effects on Student Achievement: Implications for Teacher Evaluation," Journal of Personal Evaluation in Education 11 (1997): 57-67; Amy M. Hightower et al., "Improving Student Learning by Supporting Quality Teaching: Key Issues, Effective Strategies" (Bethesda, Maryland: Editorial Projects in Education, December 2011). 17 Based on data prepared by the U.S. Department of Education for states to assist in the development of Educator Equity Plans, as required under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. U.S. Department of Education, 2011-2012 "Educator Equity Profile," available at: programs/titleiparta/equitable/caeep.pdf. These data compare the highest and lowest minority quartile schools, with the top quartile in California serving more than 95 percent students of color. 18 Carrie Hahnel, Arun Ramanathan, and Heather Barondess, "Victims of the Churn: The Damaging Impact of California's Layoff Policies on Schools, Students, and Communities in Three Large School Districts" (Oakland, Calif.: The Education Trust–West, February 2011). Carrie Hahnel and Orville Jackson, "Learning Denied: The Case for Equitable Access to Effective Teaching in California's Largest School District" (Oakland, Calif.: The Education Trust–West, January 2012). 19 California Department of Education, DataQuest, 2014-2015 "Special Education Data," available at ate&cTopic=SpecEd&myTimeFrame=S&submit1=Submit&ReptCycle=December. 20 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 2004-2006, "Percentage of gifted and talented students in public elementary and secondary schools, by sex, race/ ethnicity, and state," available at: 21 California Statewide Task Force on Special Education, "One System: Reforming Education to Serve All Students," (March 2015). 22 See, for example, The Education Trust – West, "Unlocking Doors and Expanding Opportunity: Moving Beyond the Limiting Reality of College and Career Readiness in California High Schools" (Oakland, Calif.: The Education Trust—West, July 2011); Joe R. Feagin and Bernice McNair Barnett, "Success and Failure: How Systemic Racism Trumped the Brown v. Board of Education Decision," University of Illinois Law Review (2004). 23 See, for example, Ulrich Boser, Megan Wilhelm, and Robert Hanna, "The Power of the Pygmalion Effect: Teachers Expectations Strongly Predict College Completion," (Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress, October 2014); Anne Gregory and Francis Huang, "It Takes a Village: The Effects of 10th Grade College-Going Expectations of Students, Parents, and Teachers Four Years Later," American Journal of Community Psychology 52, vol. 1-2 (Sept. 2013): 41–55. 24 Ed Trust – West Analysis of California Department of Education, DataQuest, 2013-2014 "CAASPP Test Results" available at 25 California Department of Education, DataQuest, 2013-2014 "CAASPP Test Results" available at 26 Attendance Works and the Healthy Schools Campaign, "Mapping the Early Attendance Gap: Charting a Course for Student Success" (Attendance Works; Chicago: Healthy Schools Campaign, Sept. 2015). 27 See, for example, G. Roger Jarjoura, "Effective Strategies for Mentoring African American Boys" (Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research, Jan. 2013); Joseph P. Tierney and Jean Baldwin Grossman, "Making a Difference: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters" (Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures, 2000). 28 California Department of Education, DataQuest, 2013-2014 "Graduates Report," available at 29 African American Education Collaborative, "Task Force for African American Student Achievement: Final Report and Recommendations" (San Bernardino, Calif.: African American Education Collaborative, 2014). The 2013-14 graduation rate (most recent year available) for African American students is 76%. 30 California Department of Education, DataQuest, 2014-2015 "Suspension, Expulsion, and Truancy Report"; 2014-15 "Graduates Report," available at This figure reflects total suspension incidents over one year. 31 California Department of Education, DataQuest, 2014-2015 "Suspension, Expulsion, and Truancy Report"; 2014-15" District Enrollment by Ethnicity," available at This figure reflects the unduplicated count of students suspended over one year. 32 See, for example, Eduardo Porter, "Education Gap Between Rich and Poor is Growing Wider," New York Times, Sept. 22, 2015, education-gap-between-rich-and-poor-is-growing-wider.html; Anthony P. Carnevale and Jeff Strohl, "How Increasing College Access is Increasing Inequality, and What to Do About It" excerpted from Rewarding Strivers: Helping Low-Income Students Succeed in College (New York: The Century Foundation, 2010), 71-190. 33 According to California Competes, California must increase certificate and degree production by 2.3 million more than currently projected by 2025 to restore the state's standing as a producer of high-quality college graduates. See California Competes website at http://californiacompetes. org/issues/more-college-degrees/. 34 Under the Master Plan, all California residents in the top one-eighth or top one-third of the statewide high school graduating class are to be offered a place in the UC or CSU systems, respectively. A review of the major features of the Master Plan for Higher Education in California can be found at 35 Nadia Valliani, "The State of Higher Education in California: Blacks" (Los Angeles: The Campaign for College Opportunity, May 2015). 36 Valliani, "The State of Higher Education in California." 37 The California State University, Proficiency Reports of Students Entering The CSU System, Fall 2014 Final Data "First-time Freshman Remediation," available at performance/remediation/14/Rem_Sys_Final_Fall2014.htm. 38 Valliani, "The State of Higher Education in California." 39 Valliani, "The State of Higher Education in California." 40 Mamie Lynch, Jennifer Engle, and José L. Cruz, "Subprime Opportunity: The Unfulfilled Promise of For-Profit Colleges and Universities" (Washington, D.C.: The Education Trust, November 2010). 41 Lynch et al., "Subprime Opportunity." This figure is based on six-year graduation rates from a sample of ten large for-profit colleges. 42 Hans Johnson, Marisol Cuellar Mejia, David Ezekiel, and Betsey Zeiger, "Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree" (San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California, June 2013). 43 The Education Trust, College Results Online, 2013, available at 44 The Education Trust, College Results Online, 2013, available at 45 University of California Office of the President, Statistical Summary of Students and Staff, available at 46 Valliani, "The State of Higher Education in California." END NOTES

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